Recruitment generally entails a process undertaken by a prospective employer, or a recruitment agent
who acts on behalf of the prospective employer to attract or invite a candidate to apply for a position, to
screen, select, test (e.g. competency based testing or psychometric testing) and to appoint a qualified and
suitable person for a job.
The stages of the recruitment process normally start with the prospective employer identifying a need
(job or functions) which cannot be accommodated by current staff due to reasons such as resignation,
retirement, dismissal or the need for new positions generated by restructuring or down scaling or growth.
The prospective employer will then do a job analysis and start developing person and key specifications
for the job. This will result in the position being advertised with critical and non critical specifications.
Most employers have a policy of first recruiting internally before the position is advertised externally or in
The sourcing of candidates will take place through internal or external networking, advertising (internal
and external) or other search methods such as head hunting. Candidates will then be matched to job
requirements and screening of individual applicants will take place. Often more than one screening will
take place, resulting in short lists being developed and presented to managers for interviews. Again, this
can be done by the recruitment agent or the prospective employer.
Testing (skills or personality assessment) and assessment of candidates' motivations and their fit with
organisational requirements or culture will also be determined by interviewing and other assessment
techniques. Some candidates may be invited to more than one interview with different people.
The recruitment process is finalised with the making of job offers and the finalisation of the appointment
and induction of new employees.
Depending on the size and culture of the organisation recruitment may be undertaken in-house by
managers, human resource generalists and / or recruitment specialists. Alternatively parts of all of the
process might be undertaken by either public sector employment agencies, or commercial recruitment
agencies, or specialist search consultancies.
Discrimination and the right to privacy in the recruitment process.
THE EMPLOYMENT EQUITY ACT, 55 OF 1998
Unfair discrimination in the working environment is regulated by the Employment Equity Act (EEA). The
EEA is mainly divided into two main sections, one dealing with affirmative action, and the other with
unfair discrimination, within a working environment. The philosophy behind this is clearly that no
employer can successfully implement affirmative action (appointing and promoting AA candidates) if
unfair discrimination is rife in its business. The EEA therefore places a positive obligation on employers to
find and eliminate unfair discrimination in the workplace an in its policies and practices. This process
starts at the recruitment process already as the EEA protect job seekers against unfair discrimination and
unfair medical and psychometric testing.
Chapter 2 of the Act, dealing with discrimination, applies to all employees, job applicants and employers
or prospective employers. A job applicant for the purpose of the EEA is a person who applied for a
position with an employer. Unfair discrimination outside the employment relationship should be dealt
with in terms of the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, 4 of 2000.